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Distributed energy systems and networks

The promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) generation leads to an increasing decentralisation of energy systems and brings about new challenges. Especially in Germany, the realisation of the ambitious targets concerning the expansion of RES necessitates an extensive structural rearrangement of the system. For instance, large amounts of electricity need to be transported from the wind farms in the North to the large load centres in Southern and Western Germany. As a consequence, the grid load in the system will rise to an extent that is hardly manageable with existing power grid capacities. Furthermore, the decentralised power generation installations (e.g. solar PV) need to be integrated into the lower voltage power grids without violating grid-safety constraints. In this context, different market design options for distributed energy systems, including appropriate demand response mechanisms, are currently discussed intensively. However, the consequences of these structural changes for the system’s stability and resilience are not yet well understood.

In addition, the number of players in the market recently increased in consequence of the decentralisation and is expected to further increase. Since the different players typically pursue different objectives and have different preference perceptions, multiple and usually conflicting targets need to be considered. As a result, decision and evaluation processes need to be designed in a participatory way. Moreover, a purely economic optimisation is no longer sufficient to support decision making in energy systems since the importance of ecological, technical and socio-psychological criteria steadily increases.

Our research, supported by the use of various simulation and optimisation models, therefore focusses on the following three fields:



1. Model-based power systems analysis considering Development of generating facilities
    grid restrictions

  • Regional power system development and nodal pricing
  • Analysis of grid congestions and load flow management
  • Development of the robustness of power systems

Main model(s) supporting the research:
PERSEUS-NET, an advanced version of PERSEUS
(Program Package for Emission Reduction Strategies in
Energy Use and Supply), allowing for the consideration
of grid restrictions.



                                                                                           Energy Supply Cooperative

2. Distributed energy systems and smart markets/grids

  • Analysis of load shifting potential and user acceptance
    (price-based) demand side management (DSM)
  • Stochastic approaches for layout planning, energy
    and forecasting in distributed energy

  • Market design of distributed energy systems 

Main model(s) supporting the research:
PowerACE, an agent-based simulation model, developed
within the research group "Energy markets and energy
systems analysis", which was adapted and extended for
the use in decentralised systems.




3. Multicriteria assessment of technologies for
    energy system
sParadigm shift

  • Scenario planning techniques for decision support
    under uncertainty
  • Participatory multi-criteria decision analysis 
  • Strategies for risk management and security of

Main model(s) supporting the research:
(SImulation-based Multi-Attribute Decision
Analysis), a tool for multi-criteria decision analysis
allowing for the consideration of different types of
uncertainties and providing various illustrations to
support the visualisation and communication of the



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